Annual CIERA Tables - Source: Statistics Canada Data

Get a breakdown of direct, indirect and induced impacts for each of GDP, Output and Jobs.

The following tables are published each year once Statistics Canada datasets are available each year, typically by October.

Tables offer direct, indirect, induced and TOTAL for each of GDP, Output and Jobs. The following are the Key Indicators lifted from these detailed reports by the industries for annual insights:

  1. Total GDP - this figure is the sum of direct, indirect and induced contributions to the economy, it represents labour and profit contributions by the industry primarily, but excludes expenditures on supplies and services. Indirect and induced show economic contributions within the province only. GDP figures are net of any government subsidies received by the industry.
  2. Direct Output - this figure is the direct impact (no indirect or induced are added) and represents labour and profit contributions GDP plus expenditures on supplies and services.
  3. Total Jobs - this figure is the sum of direct, indirect and induced numbers and it represents traditional FTE and PT equivalent jobs. It represents work, but not workers, and currently has limited ability to measure gig work. It must be noted that the creative industries include many people with gig work that is not easily assessed using this traditional measurement approach model. Statistics Canada recognizes the importance of gig work and acknowledges that it is most prevalent in the arts, culture, recreation and sport industries. Furthermore B.C. has the highest share of gig workers in the country - in 2016, 8.7% of male workers and 10.7% of women workers in B.C. are engaged in the gig economy.


CIERATM estimates three types of economic impacts:
  1. The DIRECT impact reflects the immediate economic activity of those businesses within the creative industries. 
  2. The INDIRECT impact reflects the demand from creative industries for inputs from other industries. The indirect impact is cumulative, and includes transactions going all the way back to the beginning of the supply chain. 
  3. The INDUCED impact reflects the economic activity that arises as a result of industry workers, involved in either direct or indirect activity, spending part of their wages and salaries on other goods and services.
Note: CIERATM makes adjustments to account for “own direct” activity; that is, supplier activity from the same industry. Not adjusting for “own indirect” activity leads to a form of double-counting between direct, indirect and induced effects within a given industry.
For comparability with other industries and reports, it is important to identify whether Total or Direct impacts are referenced. By offering these tables we seek to facilitate comparability in any circumstance.